Sustainable tourism is an approach that brings together practices that ensure the protection and development of their attractiveness while using environmental, cultural and natural resources subject to tourism. The sector practitioners and the academic community should take the lead in defining and disseminating the applications that constitute the content of this approach.

MAIN ISSUES ADDRESSED IN THE SCOPE OF PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES (1990-2016)
BY Özlem GÜZEL, Associate Dr. Özlem GÜZEL
Akdeniz University, Tourism Faculty along with
Mustafa GÜLMEZ
Dilara BAHTIYAR
SUMMARY
Sustainable tourism is an approach that brings together practices that ensure the protection and development of their attractiveness while using environmental, cultural and natural resources subject to tourism.
The sector practitioners and the academic community should take the lead in defining and disseminating the applications that constitute the content of this approach.
Based on this point, in this study, the sustainable tourism-themed, theoretical and applied studies, principles and techniques in the last quarter century, i.e. the period from the 1990s to the present, have been examined.
In the light of the findings obtained, it has been observed that the number of sustainable themed academic studies has been increasing over the years and that the topics of economic continuity, local welfare, environmental naturalness, physical integrity and cultural wealth are intense in terms of the twelve goals of sustainable tourism. On the other hand, studies pointing to local control, social welfare, employment quality, social equality, visitor satisfaction, biodiversity and resource efficiency were found to be insufficient.
Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainable Tourism, Literature Research.
INTRO
While it gained its existence in the sustainable environment in the 1970s, this laterality gained popularity in development and tourism studies since the 1980s (Liu, 2003; Berno & Bricker, 2001). However, Jayawardena (2003) and Liu (2003) emphasize that their research is weak and inadequate. Liu (2003) states that in the tourism literature research that emerged, mixed concepts, wrong measurements and inadequacies led to the discussion. Jayawardena (2003) emphasizes that practitioners should develop viable practical models of expectations from academics. Creating a business model of future tourism research, good practice examples, analyzing the benefits of good practices, relationships between customer and service providers, understanding tourism perceptions and social value, reflections of not taking advantage of green opportunities, environmental product measurement, and joint research that brings academies together, success stories. It suggests sharing with the masses, case studies and success stories as part of the training. Marshall and Toffel (2005) emphasize that a clear definition of knowing cannot be made and that the reason for this is that it is a continuity and continuity process. Similarly, Padin and Svensson (2013) stated that the sequence is planned to be defined not as a concept or structure, but as a unit, the intended tourism emergence and repetition. Undoubtedly, useful researches are useful in the renewal and definition of the process. Scientific research, understanding of the intrinsic relationships between tourism, local communities and the environment, understanding the value and roles of stakeholders, placing destinations on the foundations of providing polarization modeling, understanding the realization of the realization beyond the protection of the environment, reading in the economic, environmental, socio-values ??section of tourism It is of critical importance in examining the influence of tourists and emphasizing the consumer identity of tourists. In this context, it is thought that these issues, which focus on the literature research, will be important in terms of the place where the subject is concentrated and the missing part between years.
Sustainable Tourism
One of the most important responsible for the damage to the environment and nature is the tourism sector (Güzel, 2012; Papatya et al., 2011; Demir & Çevirgen, 2006; Meydan, 1998). Emphasizing the existence of the ecological crisis as one of the four horsemen of the apocalypse created by the green / global capitalist system approaching its zero point, Daisy and others have emphasized the fact that nature is transformed into an object of consumption with the realization that the ecological crisis creates the sustainable environmental paradox and tourism activities endanger their future. (2011: 223). The sustainable tourism approach, popular with the Brundtland report in the 1980s, is an approach that aims to ensure the development and permanence of the sector, and to eliminate the negative effects of destinations in terms of environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects in the long term. Sustainability principles are emphasized in the “Global Code of Ethics in Tourism” in the investment reports of the World Tourism Organization (WTO). Within the Global Code of Ethics in Tourism
The third of the 10 principles that include the social, economic, cultural and environmental contents of travel and tourism movements is “tourism as an element of sustainable development” (http://ethics.unwto.org). As emphasized in Article 3, the tourism sector is the main element of sustainable development and this article has the following contents (http://ethics.unwto.org):
• In the development of tourism, all parties are obliged to protect the natural environment in the perspective of sound, continuous and sustainable economic growth, and future generations should be taken into account in meeting the needs.
• Resource-saving, particularly types of tourism, which prioritize water and energy-saving methods and reduce waste, should be encouraged by national / regional / local public authorities.
• Periods of increased tourist flow such as school holidays should be arranged in a way to reduce the impact of tourism on the environment.
• Tourism infrastructure and activities should be prepared in a way that ensures the conservation of ecosystem, biodiversity and wildlife.
• Nature tourism and eco-tourism should be considered as the basic elements that play a role in the development and enrichment of tourism.
Considering why the World Tourism Organization (WTO) attaches importance to sustainable tourism, it can be pointed out that the tourism enterprises in the sector have insensitive practices, and the local people and tourists are unconscious about the effects of tourism. Concrete examples of this situation can be seen in the sustainable tourism development report published by the World Tourism Organization in 2013. The negative aspects of tourism, which is shown as the most important force of development in the report, are listed as follows:
• Tourism leads to climate change by contributing 5% to existing carbon emissions, mainly with transportation facilities and tourism activities such as accommodation as well as transportation.
• Failure to properly dispose of solid and liquid wastes by tourism enterprises causes local land and water pollution.
• Tourist activities pose problems in some regions.
• Accommodation businesses use non-renewable and valuable resources such as land, water and energy. In some areas, more water is consumed in holiday villages than the local people use.
• Inadequate management of tourism development and inappropriate activities in sensitive areas can damage biodiversity.
• There may be negative impacts on cultural heritage sites where there is insufficient visitor management.
• Tourism can cause negative effects on local communities in regions with unrestricted entry, such as increased crime, sexual exploitation, and the destruction of socio-cultural traditions and values.
• While creating job opportunities, tourism can lead to poor working conditions.
• The sector is sensitive to source markets due to economic performance, economic conditions, natural events and security concerns.
Table1. Literature Research Summary (1990-2016)
2004
Tazim B. Jamal
Virtue Ethics And Sustainable Tourism Pedagogy: Phronesis, Principles And Practice
2005
Mehmet Altinay, Kashif Hussain
Sustainable Tourism Development: A Case Study Of North Cyprus
2006
Sonja Sibila Lebe, Borut Milfelner
Innovative Organisation Approach To Sustainable Tourism Development ?n Rural Areas
2007
Robert J. Johnston, Timothy J. Tyrrell
Management Exercises And Trainer’s Note ?n Sustainable Tourism And Dynamics
2007
Ute Jamrozy
Marketing of Tourism: A Paradigm Shift Toward Sustainability
2007
Erick T. Byrd
Stakeholders ?n Sustainable Tourism Development And Their Roles: Applying Stakeholder Theory To Sustainable Tourism Development
2008
Mariangela Franch, Umberto Martini, Federica Buffa, Gerardine Parisi
4L Tourism (Landscape, Leisure, Learning And Limit): Responding To New Motivations And Expectations of Tourists To Improve The Competitiveness Of Alpine Destinations In A Sustainable Way
2008
Chandana Jayawardena, Daniel J. Patterson, Chris Choi, Ryan Brain
Sustainable Tourism Development In Niagara: Discussions, Theories, Projects And Insights
2009
Teresa C.H. Tao, Geoffrey Wall
Tourism As A Sustainable Livelihood Strategy
2010
Christof Pforr
Concepts of Sustainable Development, Sustainable Tourism, And Ecotourism: Definitions, Principles, And Linkages
2010
Girish Prayag, Kiran Dookhony- Ramphul, Mootoo Maryeven
Hotel Development And Tourism Impacts In Mauritius: Hoteliers’ Perspectives On Sustainable Tourism
2010
Pamela A. Kennett-Hensel, Julie Z. Sneathand, Paul J. Hensel
Developing Sustainable Tourism: Managers‘ assessment of Jamaica‘s Ten-year master plan
2010
Dainora Grundey
Managing Sustainable Tourism in Lithuania: Dream Or reality?
2011
D.H.P. Verbeek, A. Bargeman, J.T. Mommaas
A Sustainable Tourism Mobility Passage
2011
Ming Zhao, Le Wang, Qian Fu, Yongxiang Wang, Dongwei Zhang
Promoting Living Space Protection While Ensuring Sustainable Tourism In Yuhu Village, Lijiang City
2011
Kirk S. Bowman
Sustainable Tourism Certification And State Capacity: Keep it Local, Simple, Andfuzzy
2011
Robert S. Bristow Wen, Tsann Yang Mei, Tsen Lu
Sustainable Medical Tourism in Costa Rica
2012
Bill Bramwell, Bernard Lane
Towards innovation in sustainable tourism research
2012
Carmen Padin
A Sustainable Tourism Planning Model: Components And Relationships
2012
Heather J. Gibson, Kyriaki Kaplanidou, Sung Jin Kang
Small-Scale Event Sport Tourism: A Case Study in Sustainable Tourism
2012
Suzanne de la Barre
Wilderness And Cultural Tour Guides, Place Identity And Sustainable Tourism i?n Remote Areas
2012
Daniel Scott
Why Sustainable Tourism Must Address Climate Change
2012
James E. Stoddard, Carol E. Pollard, Michael R. Evans
The Triple Bottom Line: A Framework for Sustainable Tourism Development
2012
Ester M. Pereir, Reidar J. Mykletun
Guides as Contributors to Sustainable Tourism. A Case Study from the Amazon
2013
Yulan Y. Yuan
Adding Environmental Sustainability To The Management Of Event Tourism
2013
Dagmar Lund- Durlacher, Frederic Dimanche
Mobilities And Sustainable Tourism: An Introduction
2013
Carmen Padin, Göran Svensson
A multi-layer matrix model of sustainable tourism
2013
Gianna Moscardoa, Elena Konovalova, Laurie Murphya, Nancy McGeheeb
Mobilities, Community Well- Being And Sustainable Tourism
2014
Wided Batat and, Sonja Prentovic
Towards Viral Systems Thinking: A Cross-Culturalstudy Of Sustainable Tourismads
2014
Mehmet Behzat Ekinci
The Cittaslow Philosophy in The Context Of Sustainable Tourism Development; The Case Of Turkey,
2014
Emil Juvan, Sara Dolnicar
The Attitude–Behaviour Gap in Sustainable Tourism
2014
Anna Torres- Delgado, Francesc López Palomeque
Measuring Sustainable Tourism At The Municipal Level
2015
Bill Bramwell,
Theoretical Activity In Sustainable Tourism Research
2015
Marina Farr Michelle Esparon, Natalie Stoeckl, Silva Larson
The Significance of Environmental Values For Destination Competitiveness And Sustainable Tourism Strategy Making: Insights From Australia‘s Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area
2015
JoanI Liopoulou – Georgudaki, Athanasios Kalogeras, Panagiotis Konstantinopoulo s, Christos Theodoropoulos
Sustainable Tourism Management and Development Of A Greek Coastal municipality
2015
Kelly S. Bricker, Jeremy Schultz
Sustainable Tourism in the USA: a comparative look at the global sustainable tourism criteria
2015
Paul Hanna, Katherine Johnson, Paul Stenner, Matt Adams
Foucault, sustainable tourism, and relationships with the environment (human and nonhuman)
2015
Sylvine Pickel- Chevalier
Can equestrian tourism be a solution for sustainable tourism development in France?
2015
Kaewta Muangasame, Bob McKercher
The challenge of implementing sustainable tourism policy: a 360-degree assessment of Thailand’s ?7 Greens sustainable tourism policy
2015
R.W. (Bill) Carter, Sokhom Thok, Vicky O‘Rourke, Tristan Pearce
Sustainable tourism and its use as a development strategy in Cambodia: a systematic literatUre review
2015
V.     Waligo,             J. Clarke   ,         R. Hawkins
Embedding    stakeholders in sustainable tourism strategies
2015
Chih-HsingLiu, Jeou- ShyanHorng, Sheng-FangChou, Ying-ChunChen, Yi-Chun Lin, Yu- QianZhu An
Empirical Examination of the Form of Relationship Between Sustainable Tourism Experiences and Satisfaction
2016
Burçin Hatipoglu, Maria D. Alvarez, Bengi Ertuna
Barrier to stakeholder involvement in the planning of sustainable tourism: th ecase of the Thrace region in Turkey
2016
Adriana Budeanu Graham Miller Gianna Moscardo, Can- Seng Ooi
Sustainable tourism, progress, challenges and opportunities: an introduction.
2016
Johan Hultman, Filippa Sawe
Absence and presence of social complexity in the marketization of sustainable tourism

Associate Dr. Özlem GÜZEL